Feeling for our robot overlords: Perceptions of emotionally expressive social robots in initial interactions


Human-to-human scripting accounts for a user’s tendency in human-robot interactions (HRI) to utilize scripts just as they would if talking to another person. Can a robot’s emotional verbal expression, however, impact perceptions and further elicit human-to-human scripting? The present study examines the effects of a robot’s emotional expression of joy and sorrow on participant perceptions of anthropomorphism, animacy, likability, perceived intelligence, credibility, social presence, and uncertainty in an initial interaction. Results indicated that robot expressions of joy were rated significantly more likable, intelligent, credible, and socially present than expressions of sorrow. Implications for future research are discussed in light of our findings related to participant impressions of emotional robots and human-to-human scripting.

Communication Studies, 72(2), 251–265. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2021.1880457.
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Matthew J. A. Craig
Matthew J. A. Craig
PhD candidate in Communication & Information

Matthew Craig is a doctoral candidate in communication & information at Kent State University. Matthew Craig has research interests in human-machine communication and new media specific focus on the intersections of human-machine communication, privacy management, and society.